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The diagram illustrates the effects of the eccentricity, showing Mercury's orbit overlaid with a circular orbit having the same semi-major axis.
Mercury's higher velocity when it is near perihelion is clear from the greater distance it covers in each 5-day interval.
In the diagram the varying distance of Mercury to the Sun is represented by the size of the planet, which is inversely proportional to Mercury's distance from the Sun.
This varying distance to the Sun leads to Mercury's surface being flexed by tidal bulges raised by the Sun that are about 17 times stronger than the Moon's on Earth.
Mercury's orbit is inclined by 7 degrees to the plane of Earth's orbit the ecliptic , as shown in the diagram on the right.
As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between Earth and the Sun, which is in May or November.
This occurs about every seven years on average. Mercury's axial tilt is almost zero,  with the best measured value as low as 0.
This means that to an observer at Mercury's poles, the center of the Sun never rises more than 2. At certain points on Mercury's surface, an observer would be able to see the Sun peek up a little more than two-thirds of the way over the horizon, then reverse and set before rising again, all within the same Mercurian day.
Thus, to a hypothetical observer on Mercury, the Sun appears to move in a retrograde direction. Four Earth days after perihelion, the Sun's normal apparent motion resumes.
For the same reason, there are two points on Mercury's equator, degrees apart in longitude , at either of which, around perihelion in alternate Mercurian years once a Mercurian day , the Sun passes overhead, then reverses its apparent motion and passes overhead again, then reverses a second time and passes overhead a third time, taking a total of about 16 Earth-days for this entire process.
In the other alternate Mercurian years, the same thing happens at the other of these two points. The amplitude of the retrograde motion is small, so the overall effect is that, for two or three weeks, the Sun is almost stationary overhead, and is at its most brilliant because Mercury is at perihelion, its closest to the Sun.
This prolonged exposure to the Sun at its brightest makes these two points the hottest places on Mercury. Maximum temperature occurs when the Sun is at an angle of about 25 degrees past noon due to diurnal temperature lag , at 0.
These points, which are the ones on the equator where the apparent retrograde motion of the Sun happens when it is crossing the horizon as described in the preceding paragraph, receive much less solar heat than the first ones described above.
Mercury attains inferior conjunction nearest approach to Earth every Earth days on average,  but this interval can range from days to days due to the planet's eccentric orbit.
Mercury can come as near as This large range arises from the planet's high orbital eccentricity.
The longitude convention for Mercury puts the zero of longitude at one of the two hottest points on the surface, as described above.
However, when this area was first visited, by Mariner 10 , this zero meridian was in darkness, so it was impossible to select a feature on the surface to define the exact position of the meridian.
Therefore, a small crater further west was chosen, called Hun Kal , which provides the exact reference point for measuring longitude. A International Astronomical Union resolution suggests that longitudes be measured positively in the westerly direction on Mercury.
For many years it was thought that Mercury was synchronously tidally locked with the Sun, rotating once for each orbit and always keeping the same face directed towards the Sun, in the same way that the same side of the Moon always faces Earth.
Radar observations in proved that the planet has a spin-orbit resonance, rotating three times for every two revolutions around the Sun. The eccentricity of Mercury's orbit makes this resonance stable—at perihelion, when the solar tide is strongest, the Sun is nearly still in Mercury's sky.
The rare resonant tidal locking is stabilized by the variance of the tidal force along Mercury's eccentric orbit, acting on a permanent dipole component of Mercury's mass distribution.
However, with noticeable eccentricity, like that of Mercury's orbit, the tidal force has a maximum at perihelion and therefore stabilizes resonances, like , enforcing that the planet points its axis of least inertia roughly at the Sun when passing through perihelion.
The original reason astronomers thought it was synchronously locked was that, whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always nearly at the same point in its resonance, hence showing the same face.
This is because, coincidentally, Mercury's rotation period is almost exactly half of its synodic period with respect to Earth. Due to Mercury's spin-orbit resonance, a solar day the length between two meridian transits of the Sun lasts about Earth days.
Simulations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of Mercury varies chaotically from nearly zero circular to more than 0.
In , the French mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier reported that the slow precession of Mercury's orbit around the Sun could not be completely explained by Newtonian mechanics and perturbations by the known planets.
He suggested, among possible explanations, that another planet or perhaps instead a series of smaller 'corpuscules' might exist in an orbit even closer to the Sun than that of Mercury, to account for this perturbation.
The success of the search for Neptune based on its perturbations of the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to place faith in this possible explanation, and the hypothetical planet was named Vulcan , but no such planet was ever found.
The perihelion precession of Mercury is 5, arcseconds 1. Newtonian mechanics, taking into account all the effects from the other planets, predicts a precession of 5, arcseconds 1.
The effect is small: just Similar, but much smaller, effects exist for other Solar System bodies: 8.
Filling in the values gives a result of 0. This is in close agreement with the accepted value of Mercury's perihelion advance of There may be scientific support, based on studies reported in March , for considering that parts of the planet Mercury may have been habitable , and perhaps that life forms , albeit likely primitive microorganisms , may have existed on the planet.
Mercury can be observed for only a brief period during either morning or evening twilight. Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse.
Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction.
The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun,  except its new phase during a transit.
Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance.
Nonetheless, the brightest full phase appearance of Mercury is an essentially impossible time for practical observation, because of the extreme proximity of the Sun.
Mercury is best observed at the first and last quarter, although they are phases of lesser brightness. The first and last quarter phases occur at greatest elongation east and west of the Sun, respectively.
At both of these times Mercury's separation from the Sun ranges anywhere from Mercury can be easily seen from the tropics and subtropics more than from higher latitudes.
Viewed from low latitudes and at the right times of year, the ecliptic intersects the horizon at a steep angle.
At middle latitudes , Mercury is more often and easily visible from the Southern Hemisphere than from the Northern.
This is because Mercury's maximum western elongation occurs only during early autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas its greatest eastern elongation happens only during late winter in the Southern Hemisphere.
An alternate method for viewing Mercury involves observing the planet during daylight hours when conditions are clear, ideally when it is at its greatest elongation.
Care must be taken to ensure the instrument isn't pointed directly towards the Sun because of the risk for eye damage. This method bypasses the limitation of twilight observing when the ecliptic is located at a low elevation e.
Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.
Because the shift of 0. The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the Mul. Apin tablets. These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.
Apin tablets is transcribed as Udu. Ud "the jumping planet". The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the gods in their mythology.
The ancients knew Mercury by different names depending on whether it was an evening star or a morning star. By about BC, the ancient Greeks had realized the two stars were one.
The Greco - Egyptian  astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun in his work Planetary Hypotheses.
He suggested that no transits had been observed either because planets such as Mercury were too small to see, or because the transits were too infrequent.
It was associated with the direction north and the phase of water in the Five Phases system of metaphysics.
In India, the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji in the 15th century developed a partially heliocentric planetary model in which Mercury orbits the Sun, which in turn orbits Earth, similar to the Tychonic system later proposed by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century.
The first telescopic observations of Mercury were made by Galileo in the early 17th century. Although he observed phases when he looked at Venus, his telescope was not powerful enough to see the phases of Mercury.
In , Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler.
In , Giovanni Zupi used a telescope to discover that the planet had orbital phases similar to Venus and the Moon. The observation demonstrated conclusively that Mercury orbited around the Sun.
A rare event in astronomy is the passage of one planet in front of another occultation , as seen from Earth. Mercury and Venus occult each other every few centuries, and the event of May 28, is the only one historically observed, having been seen by John Bevis at the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
The difficulties inherent in observing Mercury mean that it has been far less studied than the other planets. The effort to map the surface of Mercury was continued by Eugenios Antoniadi , who published a book in that included both maps and his own observations.
In June , Soviet scientists at the Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences , led by Vladimir Kotelnikov , became the first to bounce a radar signal off Mercury and receive it, starting radar observations of the planet.
Pettengill and Rolf B. Dyce, using the meter Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico , showed conclusively that the planet's rotational period was about 59 days.
If Mercury were tidally locked, its dark face would be extremely cold, but measurements of radio emission revealed that it was much hotter than expected.
Astronomers were reluctant to drop the synchronous rotation theory and proposed alternative mechanisms such as powerful heat-distributing winds to explain the observations.
Italian astronomer Giuseppe Colombo noted that the rotation value was about two-thirds of Mercury's orbital period, and proposed that the planet's orbital and rotational periods were locked into a rather than a resonance.
Instead, the astronomers saw the same features during every second orbit and recorded them, but disregarded those seen in the meantime, when Mercury's other face was toward the Sun, because the orbital geometry meant that these observations were made under poor viewing conditions.
Ground-based optical observations did not shed much further light on Mercury, but radio astronomers using interferometry at microwave wavelengths, a technique that enables removal of the solar radiation, were able to discern physical and chemical characteristics of the subsurface layers to a depth of several meters.
Moreover, recent technological advances have led to improved ground-based observations. In , high-resolution lucky imaging observations were conducted by the Mount Wilson Observatory 1.
They provided the first views that resolved surface features on the parts of Mercury that were not imaged in the Mariner 10 mission.
Reaching Mercury from Earth poses significant technical challenges, because it orbits so much closer to the Sun than Earth.
Communication is difficult but not impossible during this period. Be patient with other people and be more present in your expression.
Nine times out of ten, this compassionate deliberation will get you through. In that rare case where compassionate deliberation is not enough, it might be best to put the interaction off until Mercury goes direct again in a few weeks.
Test Now! Mercury retrograde calendar encourages us to slow down in all aspects of our lives. Our modern mindset forces us to constantly go, go, go.
Too often, this urge to succeed prevents us from being thorough in the projects that we do take on. Mercury in retrograde gives us a chance to go back and redo it the correct way.
By slowing down, going back to our previous work, and tying up loose ends, we will be more in line with the energies present during a Mercury retrograde.
Aligning ourselves with these energies will prevent us from fighting the current, which will make our own lives easier during these frustrating times.
Ultimately, by going retrograde ourselves going back over our work , we will avoid many of the pitfalls normally associated with this period in the planetary cycle.
It takes sunlight 3. Mercury has a radius of 2. It is about the size of the continental United States, slightly bigger.
It has a mass of about 3. Despite being the smallest planet from the Solar System, it is the second densest planet in the Solar System , with a density of 5.
Mercury's highly eccentric, egg-shaped orbit takes the planet as close as 29 million miles or 47 million kilometers, and as far as 43 million miles or 70 million kilometers from the Sun.
Mercury travels through space at nearly 29 miles or 47 kilometers per second, faster than any other planet.
The resonance makes a single solar day on Mercury last exactly two Mercury years, about Earth days. The eccentricity of Mercury's orbit makes this resonance stable at perihelion, when the solar tide is strongest.
The Sun is nearly still in Mercury's sky. The orbital eccentricity of Mercury in simulations varies chaotically, from zero or circular to more than 0.
More accurate modeling based on a realistic model of tidal response has demonstrated that Mercury was captured into the spin—orbit state at a very early stage of its history, within 20 or 10 million years after its formation.
Mercury spins slowly on its axis and completes one rotation every 59 Earth days. Cafe Astrology. Sun conjunct Mercury Because the ego and the mind are aligned, people with Sun conjunct Mercury possess much mental energy.
Cafe Astrology Home. Share this Article Like this article? Email it to a friend! Health seems to be an issue and this could come from their highly-strung nerves.
It may be hard for them to separate their ego from their thinking, taking it far too personally when anyone disagrees with their opinion. They can be masters of spin.
Mercury being the neuter planet can account for a tendency to androgyny and bi-sexuality, or a certain childlike asexual charm.
But there is also the question of combustion to consider. Some forward thinking traditional astrologers have considered reducing the orb and raising the limit for Cazimi which I think would be worth considering when you look at the list on page 2.
This would bring prolific songwriter Carole King into the cazimi category.